#10 (tie)

Linden Government Solutions
(for Libyan National Army)

Hired: May 2019

NEW Q2 domestic lobbying filing (termination)

Linden Government Solutions terminated its domestic lobbying registration for the Decision Support Center of Libya (on behalf of Libyan strongman Khalifa Hifter’s Libyan National Army) effective June 19. The firm is separately registered to work for the Decision Support Center under the Foreign Agents Registration Act.

Mercury Public Affairs
For office of the Prime Minister

Hired: April 2019
Contract: $2 million/year

NEW Informational materials

For Libya’s UN-recognized Government of National Accord, Mercury distributed an article in the UK newspaper The Times on Saif Gadhafi’s ties to Russia, as well as a statement by International Criminal Court Prosecutor Fatou Bensouda on the discovery of mass graves in the country.

Gerstman Schwartz
For Libyan Investment Authority

Hired: Aug. 2019
Contract: $150,000 legal retainer

NEW Supplemental (termination)
(Oct. 1, 2019 – March 31, 2020)

Gerstman Schwartz stopped lobbying for the Libyan Investment Authority on March 31. The firm was paid a one-time, $150,000 retainer in August; it disclosed just one meeting in the six-month period ending March 31 — with House Foreign Affairs Committee staffer Ryan Doherty, on Dec. 3. The firm also disclosed arranging an interview between Ali Mohammed Hassen, the chairman and CEO of the authority, and Todd Wood, the conservative Washington Times’ former national security columnist, for Wood’s media venture, Creative Destruction Media (the firm also arranged a phone interview with Wall Street Journal frontier markets editor Dan Keeler that was not published).

Prime Policy Group
For office of the Deputy Prime Minister

Hired: May 2019
2018 fees: pro bono

NEW Supplemental (termination)
(Oct. 1, 2019 – March 31, 2020)

Prime Policy Group stopped working on a pro bono basis for Libyan Deputy Prime Minister Ahmed Maiteeq on Feb. 26. In the six-month period ending March 31, Prime Policy Group lobbyists disclosed meetings with Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for the Maghreb and Egypt Henry Wooster and US Embassy in Libya Chargé d'Affaires Natalie Baker (Feb. 12); Rep. Tom Malinowski, D-N.J. (Feb. 11); and Rep. Greg Pence, R-Ind. (Feb. 12). Maiteeq also attended the meetings, according to the filing.

Ann Adler, a director at Prime Policy Group, worked on the firm’s pro-bono account for Maiteeq before the firm stopped working for Maiteeq on Feb. 26.

Gotham Government Relations
(for Libya)

Hired: Sept. 2019
Contract: $1.5 million

NEW Supplemental (termination)
(Oct. 1, 2019 – March 31, 2020)

On March 31, Gotham Government Relations — which is owned and controlled by Gerstman Schwartz partners Brad Gerstman and David Schwarz — stopped lobbying for Libya’s UN-backed Government of National Accord. The firm disclosed receiving $825,000 as a “one-time retainer fee” and paid lobbyist John Cpin $18,000; on March 2, the firm’s lobbyists met with Rep. Tom Malinowski, D-N.J.; House Foreign Affairs Committee Chairman Eliot Engel, D-N.Y.; Rep. Brad Sherman, D-Calif.; Rep. Adriano Espaillat, D-N.Y.; and Rep. Brad Schneider, D-Ill. The firm’s lobbyists notably discussed Saudi Arabia with Malinowski and Sherman.

Sanitas International
(for Libya Institute for Advanced Studies / Aref Ali Nayed)

Hired: Sept. 2019

NEW Supplemental
(April 1, 2019 – Sept. 30, 2019)

Sanitas International reported no lobbying-related fees or activities for the Libya Institute for Advanced Studies since Sept. 1. A Sanitas representative told Al-Monitor that its work for LIAS, which is run by former Libyan Ambassador to the United Arab Emirates Aref Ali Nayed, is pro-bono.

Yorktown Solutions
(for Libyan United Democratic Party/Hassan Tatanaki)

Hired: April 2019
2018 fees: $0

NEW Supplemental
(June 1, 2019 – Nov. 30, 2019)
Fees: $180,000

Yorktown Solutions, which works for Libyan businessman Hassan Tatanaki’s Libyan United Democratic Party, was paid $180,000 by the party in the six-month period ending Nov. 30, 2019. The firm’s lobbyists notably met with Tom Hill, a senior program officer for North Africa at the US Institute of Peace; Karim Mezran, a resident senior fellow at the Atlantic Council; and Ryan Doherty, a Democratic staffer on the House Foreign Affairs Committee’s Middle East panel. They also emailed Robert O’Brien, then the special presidential envoy for hostage affairs (who has since become US President Donald Trump’s national security adviser) as well as his then-deputy  Julia Nesheiwat, as well as Stephanie Williams, the UN Deputy Special Representative for Political Affairs in Libya.

Mayer Brown
(for Tri-Star International Trading / Mustafa Eteer)

Hired: June 2018
2018 fees: $50,000

NEW Supplemental (termination filing)
(Feb. 1, 2019 – July 31, 2019)

Fees: None
Meetings: None

Mayer Brown stopped working for Libya’s Tri-Star International Trading on Feb. 1. Tri-Star, a company owned by Libyan poultry mogul Mustafa Eteer, hired Mayer Brown in June 2018 for $50,000 to provide “advice and assistance in connection with developments in the country of Libya regarding the formation of a democratic government.”

Libyan rivals take their fight to Washington


Julian Pecquet



Julian Pecquet is the Editor of Special Projects for Al-Monitor, where he supervises the award-winning Lobbying Tracker as well as managing long-form stories. Before that he covered the US Congress for Al-Monitor. Prior to joining Al-Monitor, Pecquet led global affairs coverage for the political newspaper The Hill.

Posted: September 11, 2019

Libya’s warring governments have taken their battle for control of Tripoli to the US capital.

Both the UN-recognized Government of National Accord and strongman Khalifa Hifter’s self-proclaimed Libyan National Army (LNA) inked $2 million annual lobbying contracts this spring to seek US support. The dueling campaigns come amid mixed messages from the Donald Trump administration, with the president appearing to endorse Hifter’s assault on the Libyan capital even as his own State Department continues to support Prime Minister Fayez al-Sarraj and advocate for a political settlement.

The Sarraj government kicked off the latest lobbying spree in late April when it hired Mercury Public Affairs less than a week after Trump was widely reported as giving a green light to the attack on Tripoli in an April 19 phone call with Hifter. The firm has devoted no fewer than 19 registered foreign agents to the account, including former Sen. David Vitter, R-La., former Rep. Joe Garcia, D-Fla., and Bryan Lanza, who served as deputy communications director for Trump’s 2016 campaign.

Separately, the Tripoli government’s Libyan Investment Authority hired New York law firm Gerstman Schwartz last month to lobby the US Treasury Department and the US delegation to the United Nations — and potentially the State Department and Congress — to help retrieve frozen assets. About $50 billion worth of Libyan assets remain frozen under UN sanctions.

Within a month of being hired, Mercury had scored meetings with seven members of the House Foreign Affairs and Armed Services committees as well as with Sens. Lindsey Graham, R-S.C., Joni Ernst, R-Iowa, and 2020 presidential candidate Cory Booker, D-N.J. Vitter in particular helped arrange a late April phone call between Graham, a stalwart Trump ally on Capitol Hill, and Sarraj after which the US senator publicly called on the administration to “lead the political reconciliation process and firmly reject any effort – by any party — for a military takeover.”

Ibrahim Sahad, a Sarraj ally on Libya’s consultative Higher State Council, told Al-Monitor during a May visit to Washington that a key ask was for the United States to step in to stop the flow of arms and fighters from Arab countries such as the United Arab Emirates in a bid to slow Hifter’s momentum. In a win for Tripoli, House lawmakers included language in their annual defense authorization bill calling on the president to provide a detailed US strategy for Libya and an accounting of foreign military intervention in the conflict.

Mercury also helped organize media interviews for Deputy Prime Minister Ahmed Maiteeq during his visit to Washington in early May. Maiteeq has separately retained the services of Prime Policy Group, pro bono, which has registered a dozen foreign agents on the account including former Rep. John Tanner, D-Tenn.

Hifter’s army responded in kind a month later, striking a $2 million deal with Texas-based Linden Government Solutions. The five registered agents on the account are tasked with providing “strategic consulting services, advice, planning, coordinating meetings with business, government and non-government representatives and public relations services in support of the [LNA’s] diplomatic goals.”

Meanwhile, on June 30, the Hifter-aligned eastern government out of Tobruk parted ways with former Israeli arms dealer Ari Ben-Menashe and his Canada-based Dickens & Madson after hiring him for a flat $6 million fee three years ago to help create “a national unity government acceptable to the foreign principal.” In a twist, Ben-Menashe had been mining those contacts as part of a $6 million June deal with Sudan’s military junta that notably aims to swap Libyan funding for Sudanese “military help” for the LNA. The abrupt termination followed a failed attempt to set up a meeting between Hifter and Sarraj in Russia, according to Dickens & Madson’s latest public filing.

As if things weren’t complicated enough, two other Libyan political players have registered to lobby the United States for their own interests.

Hassan Tatanaki, a Libyan oil tycoon with ties to both Hifter and the family of deposed dictator Moammar Gadhafi, hired Yorktown Solutions in November 2018 for $30,000 per month to represent his Libyan United Democratic Party and push for new elections. The firm is run by Daniel Vajdich, a former Senate Foreign Relations Committee staffer and adviser to the 2http://islamic016 presidential campaign of Sen. Ted Cruz, R-Texas, who previously lobbied on behalf of Ukrainian interests.

And chicken magnate and Michigan resident Mustafa Eteer hired law firm Mayer Brown in June 2018 via his Tri Star International Trading Co. for a fixed fee of $50,000 to lobby Congress and the Trump administration “regarding the formation of a democratic government in Libya.” Former Rep. Toby Moffett, D-Conn., is representing Eteer, who has argued for delaying the elections initially planned for December 2018.


Main lobbying firm for GNA:
Mercury Public Affairs




Total lobbying and PR spending by GNA for 2018



  • UN report denounces foreign support for Hifter
  • White House aides press for end to attacks in Hifter meeting
  • Ex-Hifter lobbyist probed by UN
  • US meeting with strongman Hifter lends him legitimacy
  • Rogue army launches lobbying countermove
  • US fails to rein in Egypt, UAE support for Hifter

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UN investigating ex-Libya lobbyist over Sudanese troop deployment


Julian Pecquet



Julian Pecquet is the Editor of Special Projects for Al-Monitor, where he supervises the award-winning Lobbying Tracker as well as managing long-form stories. Before that he covered the US Congress for Al-Monitor. Prior to joining Al-Monitor, Pecquet led global affairs coverage for the political newspaper The Hill.

Posted: December 17, 2019

The United Nations is investigating whether a Canada-based lobbyist contributed to instability in war-wracked Libya by helping provide hundreds of Sudanese paramilitary forces to help warlord Khalifa Hifter’s assault on Tripoli.

In its latest report to the Security Council, the UN panel of experts on Libya estimates that 1,000 members of Sudan’s Rapid Support Forces were deployed to assist Hifter’s self-proclaimed Libyan National Army on July 25. The Rapid Support Forces answer to Gen. Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo, also known as Hemeti, the vice chairman of Sudan’s civilian-military government.

“The initial plan was that the Sudanese troops would guard critical national infrastructure, thereby freeing up [Hifter’s] troops for offensive operations,” the UN panel said. The Libyan National Army, which the UN report refers to as the Hifter Armed Forces, has been attacking the UN-backed Government of National Accord since April.

The report goes on to raise concerns about the role of Ari Ben-Menashe, a former Israeli military intelligence official who heads the Montreal-based Dickens & Madson lobbying firm.

Ben-Menashe signed a $6 million deal with Dagalo in May to lobby the United States and other countries for “funding and equipment.” At the time Dagalo headed the military junta that briefly took over leadership of the country after toppling dictator Omar al-Bashir.

In exchange, the Sudanese were expected to provide unspecified “military help” for Hifter’s forces. Libya has been under an international arms embargo since 2011. Ottawa has asked police to investigate whether the contract violates Canadian sanctions laws against providing arms or related technical assistance to Sudan.

The UN panel wrote that it has yet to establish if the Rapid Support Forces’  deployment was the result of Libyan National Army funds sent to the “Transitional Council of Sudan or directly to Gen. Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo, as a result of the activities of Dickens & Madson.” The panel said it was continuing to investigate whether Dickens & Madson played a direct role in the initial Rapid Support Forces’ deployment.

At the time of the deal with Sudan, Dickens & Madson was still lobbying for Libya’s Hifter-aligned eastern government, a contract it had held since 2015. The contract was terminated June 30.

Ben-Menashe told Al-Monitor that the Sudanese troops fighting in Libya were drawn from forces that had previously been sent to fight the Houthis in Yemen under the command of Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). He said countries fighting in that conflict were the ones who sent the Sudanese fighters to fight in Libya and that neither he nor Dagalo were responsible. The UN report cites the UAE as a key military supporter of Hifter along with Egypt and Jordan.

“We had nothing to do with [the Sudanese deployment],” Ben-Menashe said. He said any promised help to Sudan under the contract would only have come after sanctions were lifted.

He added that he had shared what he knows with UN panel expert Adrian Wilkinson at a meeting in London a couple of months ago. Wilkinson did not respond to a reply for comment.

“What we have been doing is trying to get a civilian government going in Sudan,” Ben-Menashe said. “We succeeded in moving Sudan in the right direction. I think I deserve a medal — and we as a company deserve a lot of appreciation for what we did.”